This is an amazing article on the impact of bullying on children and adults. It is a well-written albeit frightening summary of the impact of hard-core bullying. I am left wondering about the spectrum of abrasive behaviors and their impacts on targets. If you are a target of abrasive and bullying behaviors then read on… What I know to be true about PTSD is how it is compounded when those around the you deny the impact of the trauma (so, when teachers, bosses, family and friends say ‘he’s just a bully, ignore it’ they’re inadvertently making the trauma worse and increasing cortisol levels and the potential for brain-damaging PTSD). And for those who see bullying, try to avoid making things worse with comments that deny the problem. It’s more helpful to say something like ‘wow, that has got to hurt’ rather than ‘just ignore it’ or ‘it’s not that bad’. Even focusing on ‘what can be done’ is better than trying to down-play the issue.